CAE Writing text types.

Text Type
Structural Features
Language features
Report
Title
Paragraph headings
  • Clear introduction explaining the reason for the report
  • Very clear language describing something precisely
  • Objective / impersonal style.
  • Neutral to formal register depending on target reader.
  • Clear conclusion, usually a recommendation.
Proposal
Title
Paragraph headings
  • Clear introduction explaining reason for writing.
  • Very clear language, persuasive language, recommendations / suggestions.
  • Objective / impersonal style.
  • Neutral to formal register depending on target reader.
  • Argument backed up by crystal clear reasons.
Essay
Title usually provided.
  • Neutral – formal register
  • Academic piece of writing
  • Examine both sides of an argument in a clearly organised structure.
  • Likely to come to a definite conclusion.
Review
Title
  • Early statement of the subject of the review (film, book, website etc.)
  • Some factual information about the subject.
  • More of the content should be devoted to the writer’s opinions on the subject.
  • Writer’s opinion supported by examples related to subject.
Formal Letter
Opening and closing conventions:
Dear sir / madam – yours faithfully
Dear Mr. Smith – yours sincerely
  • Clear opening paragraph giving reason for writing.
  • Language that persuades by giving reasons supported by examples.
Informal letter
Opening and closing conventions:

Dear/Hi Jon
Long time no see! How have you been keeping?

Write back soon, lots of love.
  • Clear paragraphs responding to questions from task.
  • Friendly, informal language, phrasal verbs, direct questions etc.
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